COMPUTATION OF SAR AND TEMPERATURE VALUES IN THE HUMAN HEAD DUE TO 2G, 3G, 4G MOBILE WIRELESS SYSTEMS
COMPUTATION OF SAR AND TEMPERATURE VALUES IN THE HUMAN HEAD
In this study, to examine the impact of distance, angle and frequency on the human head during the regular functioning of a mobile phone, a head model is constructed via COMSOL software dataset. The handset antenna has been configured with a patch antenna being a radiation source at 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 2100MHz, respectively. Temperature increase and specific absorption rate distribution on the user’s head with various angles and distances are simulated by using finite element method. Moreover, the simulations are also repeated during the voice and video calls with varying distances. It is observed that the values that are obtained in the simulations are in good agreement with the basic limitations set up by IEEE and ICNIRP, designating that the safety restrictions will not be dared by the usage of user.
 WHO, World Health Organizations Fact Sheet No.193, “Electromagnetic fields and public health, mobile telephones and their base stations”, July 2000.
 IEEE, “IEEE standard for safety levels with respect to human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, 3 khz to 300 GHz,” IEEE Standard C95.1, 2005.
 C. Guyton, J. E. Hall, “Textbook of Medical Physiology”, Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1996.
 Kang, X. K., Li, L. W., Leong, M.S., Kooi, P.S., "A spheroidal vector wave function analysis of field and SAR distributions in a dielectric prolate spheroidal human head model," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 22, 149-179, 1999.
 Li, L. W., Leong, M.S., Kooi, P.S., Yeo, T.S., "Specific absorption rates in human head due to handset antennas: A comparative study using FDTD method," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 14, 987-1000, 2000.
 Gandhi, O. P., Li, Q. X., Kang, G., "Temperature rise for the human head for cellular telephones and for peak SARs prescribed in safety guidelines," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Technology, Vol. 49, 1607-1613, 2001.
 Guy, W., Chou, C.K., "Specific absorption rates of energy in man models exposed to cellular UHF mobile-antenna fields", IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Technology, Vol. 34, Issue:6, 671-680, 1986.
 Yioultsis, T.V., Kosmanis, T.I., Kosmidou, E.P., Zygiridis, T.T., Kantartzis, N.V., Xenos, T.D., Tsiboukis, T.D.,“A comparative study of the biological effects of various mobile phone and wireless LAN Antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 38, No. 2, 777-780, 2002.
 Hirata A., Shiozawa, T. “Correlation of maximum temperature increase and peak SAR in the human head due to handset antennas” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Technology Vol. 51, No. 7, 1834-1841, 2003.
 Hirata A., Morita, M., Shiozawa, “Temperature increase in the human head due to a dipole antenna at Microwave frequencies”, IEEE Transaction on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 45, No.1, 109-116, 2003.
 Hirata A., Laakso, I., Oizumi, T., Hanatani, R., Chan, K.H., Wiart, J., “The relationship between specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in anatomically based human body models for plane wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz”, Physics in Medicine, Vol. 58, No.4, 903-908, 2013.
 Kim W., Yook, J., “Thermal steady state in human head under continuous EM exposure” 2005 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 1805-1808, 2005.
 S. I. Al-Mously, “Computation of the temperature-rise in the human head due to different mobile phone models”, IEEE Microwave Symposium (MMS), 2010 Mediterranean, pp. 370-373, 2010.
 Mat, M.H., Malek, M. F., Zulkefli, M.S., Suzanna, H.R., “Preliminary study of electromagnetic energy absorption in the head due to the exposure of radio frequency at 900MHz”, IEEE Symposium on Computers and Informatics, pp. 228-231, 2012.
 Citkaya, A.Y., Seker S. S., “FEM modeling of SAR distribution and temperature increase in human brain from RF exposure,” International Journal of Communication Systems, 2012.
 Stankovic, V., Jovanovic, D., Krstic, D., Cvetkovic, N.,“Electric field distribution and SAR in human head from mobile phones”, 9th International Symposium in Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering, ATEE, Bucharest, Romania, 7-9 May, 2015.
 Hossain, M.I, Faruque, M.R.I., Islam, M.T. “Analysis on the effect of the distances and inclination angles between human head and mobile phone on SAR”, Progress in Biophysics on Molecular Biology, Vol. 119, Issue 2, 103-110, 2015.
 H. H. Pennes, “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm”, Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 85, No.1, 5-34, 1998.
The manuscript with title and authors is being submitted for publication in Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies. This article or a major portion of it was not published, not accepted and not submitted for publication elsewhere. If accepted for publication, I hereby grant the unlimited and all copyright privileges to Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies.
I declare that I am the responsible writer on behalf of all authors.